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 Changes in Total Whiteness from 2004 to 2021 

ChangesinWhiteness2004 2021Total Whiteness is the percentage of non-Hispanic white students. It was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the first year of law school by the total number of White students enrolled during the same period. White Students included those identified as White and Unknown. It does not include White Hispanics.

Of the 200 schools, 176 schools (88%)  had information for both 2004 and 2021.  Of the 176 schools, 166 schools (94%) decreased in Whiteness; 1 school (1%) had no change in Whiteness;  9 schools (5%) increased in whiteness.

The Mean change was to decrease by 10 points, and the median change was to decrease whiteness by 9 points. Thomas Jefferson decreased whiteness by 41 points. While the University of District of Columbia increased whiteness by 16 points. 



Law School Name Decreased in Whiteness Law School Name Increase in Whiteness
Thomas Jefferson School of Law -41 District of Columbia, University of 15.5
St. Thomas University (Florida) -32 Puerto Rico, University of 5
Golden Gate University -31 South Dakota, University of 2.6
Appalachian School of Law -31 Arkansas, Fayetteville, University of 1.1
Barry University -29 Inter American University of Puerto Rico 1
Detroit Mercy, University of -27 Hawaii, University of 0.8
San Francisco, University of -27 Nebraska, University of 0.4
California Western School of Law -24 Wisconsin, University of 0.4
South Texas College of Law Houston -23 Arizona State University 0.1
Cornell University -23
Emory University -23






Correlations to Changes in Whiteness


  • Historically White Law Schools.  Historically White law schools (-10 points) had a greater decrease in whiteness than Non-HWLS (-1 point). The difference was statistically significant (p=.0000).

  • Public vs. PrivatePrivate law schools (-12 points) had a greater decrease in Whiteness than Public Schools (-8 points). The difference was statistically significant (p=.000).

  • Tiers. Law school rankings can be divided into four tiers, in theory representing the quality and status of law school.  Fourth Tier law schools (-13 Points) had a greater decrease in Whiteness and First-tier law schools had the smallest decrease in whiteness  (-8 points) (p=.022).

  • States. The law schools are located in 49 of the 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. (Alaska, Guam, and the Virgin Island have no law school.) Most states have more than one law school. Three States (Idaho, Mississippi, and Florida) had the greatest mean decrease in whiteness (-18 points). While South Dakota law school had a 3 point increase in whiteness. (p=.009)

  • RegionsThe ABA-LSAC divides the country into 10 regions. The country's region made a difference in law schools' Whiteness with the Southwest (-15 points) having the greatest decrease in whiteness and the midwest (-6 points) having the lowest decrease in whiteness.  The difference was statistically significant (p=.006).




Changes in Total Whiteness
Charts and Tables









Changes in Whiteness Database



This database includes all 200 schools. It can be sorted by columns and searched.  Click on a row for additional information.

 Legend: TWLS The Whitest Law School; EW Excess Whiteness; TW Total Whiteness; FY First Year;  LSAC Law School Admission Council; Pop Population.