Table of Authorities

Berea Coll. v. Kentucky, 211 U.S. 45 (1908)
Brom and Bett v. Ashley, (Mass. 1781)
City of Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989) (Some Negative History)
DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974) (Some Negative History)
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393 (1856) (Some Negative History)
Ex parte Endo, 323 U.S. 283 (1944) (Some Negative History)
Fisher v. Hurst, 333 U.S. 147 (1948)
Fisher v. Univ. of Tex. at Austin, 133 S. Ct. 2411 (2013) (Some Negative History)
Georgia v. McCollum, 505 U.S. 42 (1992) (Some Negative History)
Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003) (Some Negative History)
Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003) (Some Negative History)
Hodges v. United States, 203 U.S. 1 (1906) (Some Negative History)
Hudgins v. Wright, 11 Va. 134 (1806)
Hunter v. Underwood, 471 U.S. 222 (1985) (Some Negative History)
Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944) (Some Negative History)
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967) (Some Negative History)
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 339 U.S. 637 (1950) (Some Negative History)
Missouri ex rel Gaines v. Canada, 305 U.S. 337 (1938) (Some Negative History)
“Negro” John Davis v. Wood, 14 U.S. 6 (1816)
Parents Involved in Cmty. Schs. v. Seattle Sch. Dist. No. 1, 551 U.S. 701 (2007) (Some Negative History)
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) (Some Negative History)
Regents of Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978) (Some Negative History)
Schuette v. Coal. to Def. Affirmative Action, 134 S. Ct. 1623 (2014) (Some Negative History)
Sipuel v. Bd. of Regents of Univ. of Okla., 332 U.S. 631 (1948) (Some Negative History)
Steele v. Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company, 323 U.S. 192 (1944) (Some Negative History)
Sweatt v. Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (1950) (Some Negative History)
The Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883) (Some Negative History)
United States v. Fordice, 505 U.S. 717 (1992) (Some Negative History)
Vaughan v. Phebe, 8 Tenn. (Mart. & Yer.) 5 (1827)
Walker v. City of Birmingham, 388 U.S. 307 (1967) (Some Negative History)
Wygant v. Jackson Bd. of Educ., 476 U.S. 267 (1986) (Some Negative History)

Akhil Reed Amar & Neal Kumar Katyal, Bakke's Fate, 43 UCLA L. Rev. 1745 (1996)
Alicia Darensbourg et al., Overrepresentation of African American Males in Exclusionary Discipline: The Role of School-Based Mental Health Professionals in Dismantling the School to Prison Pipeline, 1 J. Afr. Am. Males Educ. 196 (2010)
Amy Goodman, Shackles and Ivy: The Secret History of How Slavery Helped Build America's Elite Colleges, Democracy Now (Oct. 30, 2013),
Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America (2008)
*vii Bartholomew F. Bland & Irma Watkins-Owen, Winfred Rembert: Amazing Grace (2012)
Christopher A. Mallett, The School-To-Prison Pipeline: A Comprehensive Assessment (2015)
Christopher Tomlins, Transplant and Timing: Passages in the Creation of an Anglo-America Law of Slavery, 10 Berkeley L. Scholarship Repository 389 (2009)
Colum. L. Sch., Standard 509 Information Report (2014), les/2014/std509inforeport-101-101-12-10-2014_13-33-20.pdf
Craig Steven Wilder, Ebony & Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America's Universities (2013)
Daniel Losen et al., Ctr. for Civ. Rts. Remedies, Are We Closing The School Discipline Gap? (2015)
Daren Lenard Hutchinson, Continually Reminded of Their Inferior Position: Social Dominance, Implicit Bias, Criminality, and Race, 46 Was. U. J.L. & Pol'y 23 (2014)
*viii Devin Bent, Posterity and the Union: In Retirement, Madison Holds Court as Sole Remaining Founding Father, Montpelier James Madison U. Mag., Winter 2001, available at
Dorothy E. Roberts, Foreword: Race, Vagueness, and the Social Meaning of Order-Maintenance Policing, 89 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 775 (1999)
Emily S. Renschler & Janet Monge, The Samuel George Morton Cranial Collection: Historical Significance and New Research, Expedition, Nov. 2008, available at
Emory's Leslie Harris Says We Should Remember The Racist Roots Of American Colleges As We Think About What Went Wrong At OU And Other Schools, Geo. Mason U. Hist. News Network, Mar. 26, 2015,
Francis D. Colinano, Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and Legacy (2006)
Gary Peller, Toward Critical Cultural Pluralism: Progressive Alternatives to Mainstream Civil Rights Ideology, in Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement (1995)
*ix Gina Crosley-Corcoran, Explaining White Privilege To A Broke White Person, OccupyWallStreet.Net, (last visited Oct. 15, 2015)
Harv. L. Sch., Standard 509 Information Report (2014),
Heather Andrea Williams, Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom (Waldo E. Martin Jr. et al. eds. 2005)
India Geronimo, Systemic Failure: The School-to-Prison Pipeline and Discrimination Against Poor Minority Students, 13 J. L. Soc'y 281 (2011)
James Baldwin, The Fire Next Time, in The Price of the Ticket: Collected Non-Fiction 1948-1985 (1985)
Jason A. Gillmer, Suing for Freedom: Interracial Sex, Slave Law, and Racial Identity in the Post-Revolutionary and Antebellum South, 82 N.C. L. Rev. 535 (2004)
Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, Ferris State University, (last visited Oct. 27, 2015)
John R. Wunder, The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Slave Codes (2008)
*x John Witherspoon 1768-94, The Presidents of Princeton University (Nov. 26, 2013),
Junius P. Rodriguez, Slavery In the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia (2007)
Justin C. Worland, Harvard Accepts Record Low 6.2 Percent of Applicants to the Class of 2015, Harv. Crimson, Mar. 31, 2011,
Justin C. Worland, Legacy Admit Rate at 30 Percent, Harv. Crimson, May 11, 2011,
Kenneth Lawson, Police Shootings of Black Men and Implicit Racial Bias: Cant's We All Just Get Along, 37 U. How. L. Rev. 339 (2015)
Lisa A. Crooms, Speaking Partial Truths and Preserving Power: Deconstructing White Supremacy, Patriarchy, and the Rape Corroboration Rule in the Interest of Black Liberation, 40 How. L.J. 459 (1997)
*xi Melinda Jackson & Dari Green, Contradicting Realities in the Mythical Post-Racial: America Blinded to Matters of Color?, in The Assault on Communities of Color (Kenneth Fasching-Varner & Nicolas Daniel Hartlep eds., 2015)
Mitchell, S. David, Zero Tolerance Policies: Criminalizing Childhood and Disenfranchising the Next Generation of Citizens, 92 Wash. U. L. Rev. 271 (2014)
Monique W. Morris, Race, Gender and the School-To-Prison Pipeline: Expanding Our Discussion to Include Black Girls, Afr. Am. Pol'y F. (2012)
N. Jeremi Duru, The Central Park Five, the Scottsboro Boys, and the Myth of the Bestial Black Man, 25 Cardozo L. Rev. 1315 (2004)
Nancy A. Heitzeg, Education or Incarceration: Zero Tolerance Policies and the School to Prison Pipeline, F. on Pub. Pol'y, no. 2, 2009, available at
Naomi Zack, White Privilege and Black Rights: The Injustice of U.S. Police Racial Profiling and Homicide (2015)
Nina Mjagkil, Loyalty in Time of Trial: The African American Experience During World War I (2011)
*xii Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Dep't of Educ., Civil Rights Data Collection Data Snapshot: School Discipline (Mar. 21, 2014), available at
Osamudia R. James, White Like Me: The Negative Impact of the Diversity Rationale on White Identity Formation, 89 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 425 (2014)
Pamela Paul, Being a Legacy Has Its Burden, N.Y. Times, Nov. 4, 2011, =2&ref=edlife
Paul D. Grant & Carl A. Grant, To Be Men and Women: The Black Struggle for Justice Continues, in The Assault on Communities of Color, in The Assault on Communities of Color (Kenneth Fasching-Varner & Nicolas Daniel Hartlep eds., 2015)
Paul Finkelman, Scott v. Sandford: The Court's Most Dreadful Case and How It Changed History, 82 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 3 (2007)
Peter G. Schmidt, Color and Money: How Rich White Kids are Winning the War over College Affirmative Action (2007)
Randy Borum et al., What Can Be Done About School Shootings?, 39 Educ. Researcher 27 (2010)
*xiii Richard Peréz-Peña, Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson, N.Y. Times, Apr. 8, 2015, available at
Rick Ayers & William Ayers, Breathe: Notes on White Supremacy and the Fierce Urgency of Now, in The Assault on Communities of Color (Kenneth Fasching-Varner & Nicolas Daniel Hartlep eds., 2015)
Russell J. Skiba et al., Race is Not Neutral: A National Investigation of African American and Latino Disproportionality in School Discipline, 40 Sch. Psychol. Rev. 85 (2011)
Stuart Buck, The History of Black Education in America, Acting White: The Ironic Legacy of Desegregation (2010)
The 1930s Education: Overview Gale U.S. History in Context, tailsWindow?query=&prodId=UHIC&displ ayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&disab leHighlighting=true&displayGroups=&sor tBy=&zid=&search_within_results=&actio n=2&catId=&activityType=&documentId= GALE%7CCX3468301121&source=Bookm ark&u=sand55832&jsid=55d9d90c4bad28 2ee2debc3c18227fed (last visited Oct. 27, 2015)
*xiv The Charters of Freedom: A New World is At the Hand, Nat'l Archives, (last visited Oct. 27, 2015)
W. Barksdale Maynard, Princeton In the Confederacy's Service: 150 Years after the Civil War, Rebel Ties Remain Little-Known, Princeton Alumni Wkly. Mar. 23, 2011, available at
William Goodell, The American Slave Code in Theory and Practice (1853)
William M. Wiecek, Structural Racism and the Law in America Today: An Introduction, 100 Ky. L.J. 1 (2012)
Yale L. Sch., Standard 509 Information Report (2014),